Search Blog Posts

Sunday, May 3, 2015

BUT, can the Govt Really Steal our personal savings fom our bank, 401K, homes, safe deposit boxes - See Executive Order 6102

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Executive Order 6102 is a United States presidential executive order signed on April 5, 1933, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt "forbidding the Hoarding of gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates within the continental United States". The order criminalized the possession of monetary gold by any individual, partnership, association or corporation.



The stated reason for the order was that hard times had caused "hoarding" of gold, stalling economic growth and making the depression worse.[1] The New York Times, on April 6, 1933, p. 16, wrote under the headline "Hoarding of Gold", "The Executive Order issued by the President yesterday amplifies and particularizes his earlier warnings against hoarding. On March 6, taking advantage of a wartime statute that had not been repealed, he issued Presidential Proclamation 2039 that forbade the hoarding 'of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency,' under penalty of $10,000 and/or up to five to ten years imprisonment."[2]

The main rationale behind the order was actually to remove the constraint on the Federal Reserve which prevented it from increasing the money supply during the depression; the Federal Reserve Act required 40% gold backing of Federal Reserve Notes issued. By the late 1920s, the Federal Reserve had almost hit the limit of allowable credit (in the form of Federal Reserve demand notes) that could be backed by the gold in its possession (see Great Depression). If gold can’t be legally owned, then it can’t be legally redeemed. If it can’t be legally redeemed, then it can’t constrain the central bank.[3]

Effect of the order

Executive Order 6102 required all persons to deliver on or before May 1, 1933, all but a small amount of gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates owned by them to the Federal Reserve, in exchange for $20.67 (equivalent to $376.58 today[4]) per troy ounce. Under the Trading With the Enemy Act of 1917, as amended by the recently passed Emergency Banking Act of March 9, 1933, violation of the order was punishable by fine up to $10,000 (equivalent to $182,185 today[4]) or up to ten years in prison, or both.

Order 6102 specifically exempted "customary use in industry, profession or art"—a provision that covered artists, jewellers, dentists, and sign makers among others. The order further permitted any person to own up to $100 in gold coins (a face value equivalent to 5 troy ounces (160 g) of gold valued at about $6,655 in 2014). 
The same paragraph also exempted "gold coins having recognized special value to collectors of rare and unusual coins." This protected recognized gold coin collections from legal seizure and likely melting.

The price of gold from the Treasury for international transactions was thereafter raised to $35 an ounce ($587 in 2010 dollars). The resulting profit that the government realized funded the Exchange Stabilization Fund established by the Gold Reserve Act in 1934.
The regulations prescribed within Executive Order 6102 were modified by Executive Order 6111 of April 20, 1933, both of which were ultimately revoked and superseded by Executive Orders 6260 and 6261 of August 28 and 29, 1933, respectively.[5]
Executive Order 6102 also led to the ultra-rarity of the 1933 Double Eagle gold coin. The order caused all gold coin production to cease and all 1933 minted coins to be destroyed. About 20 illegal coins were stolen, leading to a standing United States Secret Service warrant for arrest and confiscation of the coin. A legalized coin sold for over 7.5 million dollars, making it one[6] of the most valuable coins in the world.[7]

Prosecutions related to Executive Order 6102

Numerous individuals and companies were prosecuted related to President Roosevelt's Executive Order 6102. The prosecutions took place under subsequent Executive Orders 6111,[8] 6260,[9] 6261[10] and the Gold Reserve Act of 1934.
There was a need to strengthen Executive Order 6102, as the one prosecution under the order was ruled invalid by federal judge John M. Woolsey, on the grounds that the order was signed by the President, not the Secretary of the Treasury as required.[11]
The circumstances of the case were that a New York attorney, Frederick Barber Campbell, had on deposit at Chase National over 5,000 troy ounces (160 kg) of gold. When Campbell attempted to withdraw the gold Chase refused and Campbell sued Chase. A federal prosecutor then indicted Campbell on the following day (September 27, 1933) for failing to surrender his gold.[12] 

Ultimately, the prosecution of Campbell failed, but the authority of the federal government to seize gold was upheld, and Campbell's gold was confiscated.
The case was cause for the Roosevelt administration to issue a new order under the signature of the Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., which was in force for a few months until the passage of the Gold Reserve Act on January 30, 1934.
President Roosevelt issued new Executive Orders 6260, 6261 related to the seizure of gold and the prosecution of gold hoarders: also the Congress passed the Gold Reserve Act of 1934

Prosecutions of U.S. citizens and non citizens followed the new orders.

Gus Farber, a diamond and jewelry merchant from San Francisco, was prosecuted for the sale of thirteen $20 gold coins without a license. Secret Service agents discovered the sale with the help of the buyer. Farber, his father, and 12 others were also arrested in four American cities after a sting conducted by the United States Secret Service. The arrests took place simultaneously in New York and three California cities, San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland. 

Morris Anolik was arrested in New York with $5000 in U.S. and foreign gold coins. Dan Levin and Edward Friedman of San Jose were arrested with $15,000 in gold. Sam Nankin was arrested in Oakland. In San Francisco, nine men were arrested on charges of hoarding gold. In all, $24,000 in gold was seized by Secret Service Agents.[13]
David Baraban and his son Jacob Baraban owned a refining company. The Barabans' license to deal in unmelted scrap gold was revoked, so the Barabans operated their refining business under a license issued to a Minnie Sarch. The Barabans admitted that Minnie Sarch had nothing to do with the business, and that she had obtained the license so that the Barabans could continue to deal in gold. The Barabans had a cigar box full of gold-filled scrap jewelry visible in one of the showcases. Government agents raided the Barabans' business and found another hidden box of U.S. and foreign gold coins. The coins were seized and Baraban was charged with conspiracy to defraud the United States.[14]
In 1934, Congress passed the Gold Reserve Act of 1934 which ratified President Roosevelt's orders. A new set of Treasury regulations was issued providing civil penalties of confiscation of all gold and imposition of fines equal to double the value of the gold seized. Louis Ruffino was one individual who was indicted on three counts purporting to charge violations of the Trading With The Enemy Act. Eventually, Ruffino appealed[15] the conviction to the Circuit Court of Appeals 9th District in 1940; however, the judgment of the lower courts was upheld based on the President’s executive orders and the Gold Reserve Act of 1934. Ruffino, a resident of Sutter Creek in California-gold country, was convicted of possessing 78 ounces of gold and was sentenced to 6 months in jail, paid a $500 fine, and had his gold seized.[16]
Foreigners also had gold confiscated, and were forced to accept paper money for their gold. The Uebersee Finanz-Korporation, a Swiss banking company, had $1,250,000 in gold coins for business use. The Uebersee Finanz-Korporation entrusted the gold to an American firm for safekeeping. The Swiss were shocked to find that their gold was confiscated. The Swiss made appeals, but those appeals were denied. The Swiss were entitled to paper money – but not their gold. Of course, after the gold was seized, there was a 1934 overnight increase of the price of gold from $20.67 per ounce to $35 per ounce. The Swiss company lost 40% of their gold's value if they tried to buy the same amount of gold with the paper money they received in exchange for their confiscated gold.[17]
Another type of de facto gold seizure occurred as a result of the various Executive Orders and it involved bonds, gold certificates and private contracts. Private contracts or bonds which were written in terms of gold were to be paid in paper currency instead of gold. This was in spite of the fact that these contracts and bonds all proclaimed that they were payable in gold, and at least one, the fourth Liberty Bond, was a federal instrument. The plaintiffs in all cases received paper money instead of (the contract terms') gold. 

The contracts and bonds were written precisely to avoid currency debasement by requiring payment in gold coin. The paper money which was redeemable in gold was instead irredeemable based on Nortz v. United States, 294 U.S. 317 (1935). The consolidated Gold Clause Cases were:

The Supreme Court upheld all seizures as constitutional with Justices McReynolds, Van Devanter, Sutherland, and Butler dissenting.[19]

Abrogation and subsequent events

The Gold Reserve Act of 1934 made gold clauses unenforceable, and changed the value of gold from $20.67 to $35 per ounce, thereby devaluing the US dollar, since the dollar was gold-based. This price remained in effect until August 15, 1971, when President Richard Nixon announced that the United States would no longer convert dollars to gold at a fixed value, thus abandoning the gold standard for foreign exchange (see Nixon Shock).
The private ownership of gold certificates was legalized in 1964. They can be openly owned by collectors but are not redeemable in gold. The limitation on gold ownership in the U.S. was repealed after President Gerald Ford signed a bill to "permit United States citizens to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal with gold in the United States or abroad" with an act of Congress codified in Pub.L. 93–373,[20][21][22] which went into effect December 31, 1974. P.L. 93-373 did not repeal the Gold Repeal Joint Resolution,[23][24] which made unlawful any contracts that specified payment in a fixed amount of money as gold or a fixed amount of gold. That is, contracts remained unenforceable if they used gold monetarily rather than as a commodity of trade. However, Act of Oct. 28, 1977, Pub. L. No. 95-147, § 4(c), 91 Stat. 1227, 1229 (originally codified at 31 U.S.C. § 463 note, recodified as amended at 31 U.S.C. § 5118(d)(2)) amended the 1933 Joint Resolution and made it clear that parties could again include so-called gold clauses in contracts formed after 1977.[25]

Hoax of safe deposit box seizures

According to a hoax, Roosevelt ordered all the safe deposit boxes in the country seized and searched for gold by an I.R.S. official. A typical example reads:

By Executive Order Of The President of The United States, March 9, 1933.

By virtue of the authority vested in me by Section 5 (b) of the Act of October 6, 1917, as amended by Section 2 of the Act of March 9, 1933, in which Congress declared that a serious emergency exists, I as President, do declare that the national emergency still exists; that the continued private hoarding of gold and silver by subjects of the United States poses a grave threat to the peace, equal justice, and well-being of the United States; and that appropriate measures must be taken immediately to protect the interests of our people.

Therefore ... I hereby proclaim that such gold and silver holdings are prohibited, and that all such coin, bullion or other possessions of gold and silver be tendered within fourteen days to agents of the Government ... for compensation at the official price, in the legal tender of the Government.

All safe deposit boxes in banks or financial institutions have been sealed ... All sales or purchases or movements of such gold and silver ... are hereby prohibited.

Your possession ... and/or safe deposit box to store them is known by the government from bank and insurance records. Therefore ... your vault box must remain sealed, and may only be opened in the presence of an agent of the Internal Revenue Service.
By lawful order ..., the President of the United States.
The first known reference to this hoax was in the book After the Crash - Life In the New Great Depression.[26] That text refers only to gold, not to silver, which was added by 1998 to Internet references. It claims to be an Executive Order, yet whoever wrote the text wrote it to apply to specific individuals (e.g. "Your possession"), so if the text did originate from the government, it would have been sent to individuals, not published as an Executive Order. The first paragraph starts with the actual text of Executive Order 6102, then edits it slightly (e.g. changing "said national emergency" to "a national emergency" and "still continues to exist" to "still exists"), and then adds apparently made-up text. Due to the minor edits and how the real text and fake text are combined mid-sentence, it is almost certainly an intentionally designed hoax rather than an accident.
Most of this text does not appear in the actual Executive Order.[27] In fact, safe deposit boxes held by individuals were not forcibly searched or seized under the order and the few prosecutions that occurred in the 1930s for gold "hoarding" were executed under different statutes. One of the few such cases occurred in 1936, when a safe deposit box containing over 10,000 troy ounces (310 kg) of gold belonging to Zelik Josefowitz, who was not a U.S. citizen, was seized with a search warrant as part of a tax evasion prosecution.[28]
The U.S. Treasury came into possession of a large number of safe deposit boxes due to bank failures. During the 1930s, over 3,000 banks failed and the contents of their safe deposit boxes were remanded to the custody of the Treasury. If no one claimed the box, it remained in the possession of the Treasury. In October 1981, there were 1,605 cardboard cartons in the basement of the Treasury, each carton containing the contents of one unclaimed safe deposit box.[29]

Similar laws in other countries

In Australia, part IV of the Banking Act 1959 allows the Commonwealth government to seize private citizens' gold in return for paper money where the Governor-General "is satisfied that it is expedient so to do, for the protection of the currency or of the public credit of the Commonwealth."[30] On January 30, 1976, this part's operation was "suspended".[31]

See also


  • Christian Science Monitor. April 5, 1933. Missing or empty |title= (help)

  • "Hoarding of Gold". The New York Times. April 6, 1933. p. 16.

  • "How Money and Banking Work On a Gold Standard". Philosophical Economics. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.

  • Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.

  • Roosevelt, Franklin D. (1938). Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Volume II, The Year of Crisis, 1933. New York: Random House. p. 352. OCLC 690922370.

  • "The 10 most expensive coins and banknotes in the world". Retrieved 4 March 2014.

  • "Rare silver dollar coin sets world record auction price". ABC News. Retrieved 4 March 2014.

  • "Executive Order 6111 - Wikisource, the free online library". Retrieved 2013-12-30.

  • "Executive Order 6260 - Wikisource, the free online library". Retrieved 2013-12-30.

  • "Executive Order 6261 - Wikisource, the free online library". Retrieved 2013-12-30.

  • "Sequels". Time. November 27, 1933.

  • "Gold Indictment No. 1". Time. October 9, 1933.

  • "Bootleg Gold Ring Smashed in California: 13 Men Are Accused Of Violating Federal Restrictions". The Evening Independent. April 13, 1939.

  • "FindACase™ | United States v. Scrap". Retrieved 2013-12-30.


  • "Ruffino V. United States". Retrieved 2013-12-30.

  • "Uebersee Finanz-Korporation, Etc. V. Rosen". Retrieved 2013-12-30.

  • "FindLaw | Cases and Codes". Retrieved 2013-12-30.

  • "Perry v. United States - 294 U.S. 330 (1935) :: Justia US Supreme Court Center". Retrieved 2013-12-30.

  • Public Law 93-373 (PDF), Government Printing Office, August 14, 1974

  • United State Congress (August 14, 1974). "An Act to provide for increased participation by the United States in the International Development Association and to permit United States citizens to purchase, hold, sell, or otherwise deal with gold in the United States or abroad". Pub.L. 93–373.

  • "Statements of Policy: Gold". FDIC Law, Regulations, Related Acts. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

  • United States Congress (June 5, 1933). "Gold Repeal Joint Resolution". 48 Stat. 112, Chapter 48, H.J.Res. 192.

  • Norman v. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co., 294 U.S. 240 (1935).

  • 216 Jamaica Avenue, LLC v. S & R Playhouse Realty Co., 540 F.3d 433 (United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit 2008).

  • (After the Crash - Life In the New Great Depression, Michael Haga, Acclaim Publishing Co., 1996, pp193-194)

  • Roosevelt, Franklin D. (April 5, 1933). "Executive Order 6102: Requiring Gold Coin, Gold Bullion and Gold Certificates to Be Delivered to the Government".

  • "Josefowitz Gold". Time. March 2, 1936.

  • Apcar, Leonard M. (October 15, 1981). "Treasury's Vaults Disgorge Treasures from the Depression: Memorabilia, Valuables Taken When Banks Were Closed May Be Opened For Claims". Wall Street Journal.

  • Parliament of Australia (1959). "Banking Act 1959". Commonwealth Consolidated Acts. Commonwealth of Australia.

    1. Suchecki, Bron (August 4, 2008). "A History of Gold Controls in Australia". Gold Chat. Self-published.

    External links

    Mystery of the Knights Templars

    Protectors or Treasure Hunters on a Secret Mission?

    The Knights Templars were a secret society whose true purpose remains a mystery or is at least vigorously debated among scholars and historians to this day.  The Templars left behind many clues of their actions which have been passed down through generations, hidden in ancient manuscripts and discovered by archeologists in the modern era.  Their story is one that has captured the fascination and curiosity of people throughout the ages – were they sent to the holy land in Jerusalem to protect Christians on pilgrimages, or were they sent there on secret missions by higher authorities in order to unearth lost artifacts and buried treasure under temples and sacred holy sites? 
    Artist’s impression of a Templar Knight
    Artist’s impression of a Templar Knight (Wikimedia Commons)
    The Knights Templars were members of a religious military order of Christian knighthood founded around 1118-1119 in Jerusalem by the French knight Hugh des Payens.  For nearly two centuries this organization was the most powerful order in the medieval world.  They were the first standing army in Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire and by the time they reached their pinnacle of power in 1300, it is said they numbered in the tens of thousands.  In the beginning, there were a total of nine founding knights who made up the organization and were all related to one another through blood or marriage.  As both monks and soldiers, they were a paradox without precedent since there had never been praying priests who took up arms who also took vows of poverty, obedience and celibacy.  Knights Templars did not surrender unless they were outnumbered three to one and believed that since they were fighting for God they would be immediately sent up to heaven upon falling in battle.
    BaldwinII ceeding the location of the Temple of Solomon to Hugues de Payns and Gaudefroy de Saint-Homer. The fourth person is Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem.
    BaldwinII ceeding the location of the Temple of Solomon to Hugues de Payns and Gaudefroy de Saint-Homer. The fourth person is Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem. (Wikimedia Commons).
    Today in Europe, there are hundreds of former templar sites scattered across the continent showing how influential they were centuries ago.  At their peak, there were approximately 15,000 Templars houses with a network stretching from England to Egypt with the center of power situated in the then heart of the medieval world, France.  Conventional history says the Knights Templar’s purpose was to protect travelers traveling along the coast of the Mediterranean to Jerusalem.  In the middle ages, pilgrimages were made by westerners who had been guaranteed their safety in the city and templars protected them through the passes and mountains.  In addition to protection of the pilgrims, Templars also defended the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem and other holy sites as part of their duty.

    Crusades and Escort Service

    For two hundred years, the Crusades were fought in the name of God and were considered to be a clash of civilizations.  Enemies were formed between the Christian west and Muslim east, which have endured to this day.  In 1065, Jerusalem was taken by the Turks and the Christians were treated badly enough to where, throughout Christendom, people were stirred to fight and recapture the city.  Another reason for the Crusades stems from the Church‘s desire to block any Islamic incursion into Christian lands.  On November 27th 1095, Pope Urban II gave a speech in which he exhorted Christians to rise up against Muslims in the Holy Land.  At this point in time, Muslims controlled Spain and parts of Eastern Europe.  Thousands responded to the call and took up the sword but only around 1,000 ever made it to Jerusalem.  The western Christians united with the Byzantines in the east and in 1099, the Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, captured Jerusalem back from the Turks after a five week siege.  When the holy sites were in Christian hands, Westerners began traveling to the area in record numbers.  Outside the city walls, life was dangerous and there became a need for an escort service which is when the first Knights Templars came forward. 
    Pope Urbanus ll preaching the First Crusade.
    Pope Urbanus ll preaching the First Crusade. (Wikimedia Commons).

    Banking Back Home

    During the third crusade, the Christians were decimated at the battle of Hattin.  It was the single worst military disaster in the holy land and one of the worst defeats for Christianity.  The Templars were all put to the sword by their Muslim conquerors who would go on to take the city of Jerusalem a few months later.  Subsequent crusades by later generations would come to be known as failures.  When they returned home after the first crusades in 1128, the Templars were rich and influential and answered to no one but the pope.  They also did not have to pay taxes and were allowed to cross through the borders of European countries unrestricted.  From 1150 on, they stopped guarding the road to Jerusalem.  Instead they devised a system which allowed pilgrims to travel without cash and valuables that might otherwise make them targets.  The Templars entered into the banking business and the Temples (local lodges) were established throughout Europe, drawing deposits of massive wealth.  The services the templars offered became the model for today’s banking system, money transfers, pension plans and traveler’s checks.  Their wealth made them the prominent bankers of their age and the first western multi-national corporation.  The most controversial service the Templars offered was the issuance of high profile loans.  Princes and commoners alike banked with the Templars, and many states became indebted to them.  The church, adamantly against usury at this time, looked the other way.
    Crusader coins of the kingdom of Jerusalem, Denier in European style with Holy Sepulchre. British Museum, 2007.
    Crusader coins of the kingdom of Jerusalem, Denier in European style with Holy Sepulchre. British Museum, 2007. (Wikimedia Commons).

    Decline of the Templars

    With the fall of the Holy Land to the Muslims in 1187, the Templar order lost its founding purpose and became a target for unhappy debtors.  With the failure of the crusades and subsequent closures of the passage to the holy land, there no longer became a reason for the Knights Templars to exist.  Imagine a standing army roaming Europe that answered to no one and with no battle to fight.  This attracted attention and due to the wealth and political power the Templars had, they were seen as a threat to the power structure.  During the early 14th century, the order experienced a sudden decline.  In 1302, King Philip IV of France came into conflict with the pope.  Needing cash for his wars, he waged a vicious and skillful campaign aimed at suppressing the Templars, gaining their wealth while simultaneously, striking a blow against the papacy.  
    On Friday October 13, 1307, all the Knights Templars in France were arrested by agents of King Philip and he ordered any still residing in the country to be thrown into prison where they were tortured until confessing to accusations of heresy, homosexuality, and dishonest business activities.  They were charged with capital offenses and their properties seized.  More than likely, many of the confessions were meaningless but following these admissions, a Papal command was issued by Pope Clement V to all Christian sovereigns in 1312 which ordered that all Knights Templars be disbanded.  The order of the Templar Knights went underground and their movements have been shrouded in mystery ever since.  Friday the 13th is linked with this historical event.
    Execution of the Templars in the presence of Philip ‘the Fair’. Bedford Master 1415-1420, France.
    Execution of the Templars in the presence of Philip ‘the Fair’. Bedford Master 1415-1420, France. (Wikimedia Commons).


    After Clement’s edict in 1312, the Templars virtually vanished from the pages of history.  Of the hundreds, possibly thousands of Templars who were not arrested, there is little record of what happened to them.  There is documentation that their large fleet of ships vanished and it’s possible that they fled to Scotland since the country was something a Templar stronghold at the time.  They might have gone to Switzerland or hidden in the Alps which bordered southern France (its endless mountain range would have been a perfect hiding spot for treasure).  Some survivors of the Templar order can be traced and they simply changed their name becoming the Knights of Christ in Portugal for example.
    But of all the mysteries surrounding the Knights Templars, the most puzzling one concerns their time spent in Jerusalem. The Templars literally disappeared there for nine years and what they did in their time there remains mostly unknown.  There were nine middle aged monks who were hardly in a position to protect travelers coming in and out of Jerusalem.  There also doesn’t seem to be a written account of any pilgrims being guarded by the Templars.  In 1867 a clue came to light when a British archaeological team excavated under the site of the temple mount in Jerusalem.  There, they uncovered tunnels extending vertically from a mosque for some twenty five meters which fanned out horizontally under the dome of King Solomon’s temple.  Templars spurs and various pieces of armaments were found as proof that the tunnels had been used by them.  A prevailing theory is that the Knights Templars were digging under the Temple for treasure left there by the Jews after the invasions by the Romans in 70 AD.  Other theories suggest the knights were guarding the Holy Grail and in possession of major treasures.  The biblical temple of Solomon once housed the Ark of the Covenant and Ten Commandments.  There are early masonic writings in the 1800’s citing documents which allegedly link the Templars with the arc of the covenant and treasure buried in the Temple of Solomon.   Regardless of which theory is the right one, when they emerged again in Europe they were more wealthy, powerful and influential than ever.
    Featured image: Image of the Templar Knights ( brother-servant, brother and brother-knight priest). Ukraine, 1870. (Wikimedia Commons).
    By Bryan Hilliard


    1.)  Wasserman, James. "Secret Societies: The Knight Templars and the Assassins." Secret Societies: The Knight Templars and the Assassins. N.p., 8 Dec. 2006. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. <>.
    2.)  Timbers, Alex. "Knights Templar." Knights Templar. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. <>.
    3.)  The Templar code. Dir. Marcy Marzuki. Perf. Various. A & E Television Networks :, 2009. DVD.
    4.) The Bible's buried secrets. Dir. Gary Glassman. Perf. Various. WGBH Boston Video, 2009. DVD.
    5.)  The Knights Templar. Dir. Steven R. Talley. Perf. various. A & E Television Networks :, 2005. DVD.
    6.)  Ralls, Karen. Knights Templar encyclopedia: the essential guide to the people, places, events, and symbols of the Order of the Temple. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books, 2007. Print.
    7.)  " » Blog Archive » Philip IV – 1268 – 1314." » Blog Archive » Philip IV – 1268 – 1314. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. <>.
    8.)  "Who Were the Knights Templar?." A&E Television Networks, 26 July 2011. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. <>.
    9.)  The Templar code. Dir. Marcy Marzuki. Perf. Various. A & E Television Networks :, 2009. DVD.
    10.)  "World Of The Wicked." World Of The Wicked. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. <>.
    11.)  Hammer, Josh ua. "" Smithsonian magazine. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. <>.
    12.)  Ralls, Karen. Knights Templar encyclopedia: the essential guide to the people, places, events, and symbols of the Order of the Temple. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books, 2007. Print.
    13.)  The Templar code. Dir. Marcy Marzuki. Perf. Various. A & E Television Networks :, 2009. DVD.